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 翻译
   
考研英语翻译四步学习法
步骤一:英译汉的标准
 
“凡是翻译,必须兼顾着两面:一则当然力求其易解,一则保存着原作的风姿。”(鲁迅《且介亭杂文二集》)
 
步骤二:英译汉的过程
 
1.理解阶段
 
(1) 确定词义
 
A:英文中有些词的一般意义和专用意义不同。如base的一般意义为“基础、基本”,但在化学中表示“碱,盐基”,在垒球运动中却称为“垒”。再如:
 
blanket在某些专业中为“外壳”,
cake的一般意义为“饼”,在某些专业中可为“(钢、铜、铸)锭”等,
theatre的一般意义为“戏院,剧院”,但在医学上表示“手术室”,
live的专用意义为“带电的、实况播放的”,
local (本地的)在数学中表示“轨迹的”。
 
B:英文中有些词在不同的学科中表示不同的意义,如work一词:
 
art work                         工艺品,工艺图
deformation work                 变形功
brain work                       脑力劳动
cable work                       电缆工程
cold work                        冷加工,冷作
deep work                        深耕
die work                         模压,冲压
frame work                       框架,机壳
health work                      (原子能)剂量测定法
link work                         链系
mighty works                     奇迹
piece work                       记件工程
defensive works                  防御工事
 
C:有的词在不同的搭配中有不同的含义。如:
 
再看动词work:
He is working in the factory.                      他在工厂工作
He is working a machine.                           他在机器。
He is working at English.                          他在英语。
The ship is working eastward.                      船正向东行驶
The gears work smoothly.                           齿轮转动灵活。
My watch doesn’t work.                            我的表不了。
The screw worked loose.                            螺丝了。
Will these methods work?                           这些方法会有效吗?
The yeast has begun to work.                       酵母已开始发酵
Electronic computers work quickly and accurately.   电子计算机得既快又准确。
 
(2)辨明原文语法和逻辑关系
例如:It will strengthen you to know that your distinguished career is so widely respected and appreciated.把它译成:“这会使您更加认识到,你的杰出的事业是如此广泛地受到人们的尊敬和赞赏。”这种译法的错误就在于没有看清原文中to know that . . . and appreciated这个动词不定式短语在句中作真实主语,而it 是形式主语,因此,本句应改译成:“当您认识到您的杰出事业是如此广泛地受到人们的尊敬和赞赏时,您就会增添力量。”
再如:You smell wine.如果不理解这个句子中的smell 是系动词,wine 为smell 的表语,那就很可能错译成“你闻闻酒”。而实际上所表达的意思是:你身上有酒味。
又如:West Germany was not rejecting the proposal because it was not a signatory of the four power agreement on Berlin.如果不懂得英文中否定的转移,即把对从句的否定在表达形式上转移到主句中去,就会把它译成:西德并非在拒绝这个建议,因为它不是四国柏林协定的签字国。这种译法有悖事实。本句应改译为:西德之所以拒绝这个建议,并不是因为它不是四国柏林协定的签字国。
 
2. 表达阶段
 
     常见的表达不当有下列几种情况:
 
(1)  译文不通顺
 
如:A luxuriant tan speaks health and glamour.
误:丰润的棕色皮肤诉说着健康和魅力。
正:丰润的棕色皮肤是健康和魅力的标志。
 
(2)  选词搭配不当
 
:He killed the dog.他杀死了那条狗。按照汉语习惯,把它译成“他宰了那条狗”,岂不更好。同样下列各句中的kill,如果译成“杀死,杀掉”,就不符合汉语习惯。而应当选用读者能自然接受的词进行搭配。
He killed his time everyday at the park.他每天在公园消磨时间。
He killed his chances of success.他断送了成功的机会。
He killed the motion when it came from the committee.他否决了委员会提出来的动议。
He killed the spirit of the group.他抹杀了团体精神。
He killed three bottles of whisky in a week.他一星期喝光了三瓶威士忌。
 
(3)译文过于累赘
 
:He used poetry as a medium for writing in prose. 译为“他以诗歌作为写散文的媒介”,就不如译为“他用诗一般的语言来写散文”那么简洁和明快。再如:A doctor’s duty is to make every effort to save the dying and the woundeded.有人这样译:医生的职责是尽一切力量挽救濒临死亡的人和帮助受伤的人。还有人这样译:医生的职责是尽责尽力地救死扶伤。显然,后者的译文符合汉语的习惯。在不降低表现力的情况下,应尽量选用简洁明快的汉语来表达。
 
(4)文理欠通或不合逻辑
 
:His weariness and the increasing heat determined him to sit down in the first convenient shade.译成“他的疲倦及不断增加的炎热使他决心在第一个阴凉处坐下来”,文理不通,使人感到别扭,如改译为“他疲惫不堪,天气也越来越热。于是他下了决心,一碰到舒适的阴凉处,就坐下休息。”这样,意思清楚明白。
    再如:Mr Hunter suddenly failed, and all hands in the mill were turned off.罕特先生破产了,工厂里所有的手都辞退了。“所有的手”是什么意思,不合逻辑。应改译为“罕特先生破产了,工厂所有的职工都被解雇。”
    又如:He proved to be a good listener.他证明是一个好的听者。读者难以明白这句话的意思,原因是此话文理不通。应改译为:他证明是一个善于倾听别人意见的人。
 
(5)修饰或褒贬不当
 
试比较下列各组句子:
 
① We have worked out a scheme.我们制定一个计划。
   The enemy’s scheme went bankrupt.敌人的计划破产了。
 
② They predicted the youth would have a bright future.他们预言这位年轻人前程似锦。
   It was mid-August and the subject for discussion was the future of Rommel and his Africa Corps. 时值八月中旬,他们讨论的主题是隆美尔及其非洲集团军的前途。
 
③ Mr.Brown felt greatly flattered when he received the invitation to deliver a lecture.布朗先生接到作演讲的邀请时感到很受奉承。
   Hans was too obviously flattering the gentleman by saying he was the most courageous man he had ever seen.汉斯说这位先生是他见到过的最有胆识的人,这种阿谀奉承未免过于露骨。
 
   ①组中的scheme 是个中性词,在第一句中译成“计划”是对的,但在第二句中应使用贬义,应改为“阴谋”。②组的future表示“前途、未来”,在第一个句子中译为褒义的“前程”符合原文的意思,但第二个句子中译成中性的“前途”不妥,应改为“下场”才能表现原文的思想和立场。③组中的flatter在第二句中译成贬义的“阿谀奉承”,与原文表达的意思一致,但在第一句中译成“奉承”,歪曲了原文的意思,且不合逻辑,应改译为“荣幸”或“颇为得意”。
 
3.校改阶段
 
步骤三:考研翻译复习必备八大技巧
 
技巧一:个词微调
 
例:Divorce is less culturally acceptable in a society that is family-oriented.
在一个注重家庭的社会中,离婚并不普遍为人们在文化上所接受。
 
技巧二:前后换位
 
例: Our sign of how badly the seas have been overfished is that population of buefin tuna have declined 94% since 1970.
有一个迹象说明,对海洋渔场的狂捞滥捕已到了什么程度,这就是自从1970年以来,金枪鱼的总存活量递减了94%。
 
技巧三:变词为句
 
例:Driven by the government’s desire for a credible auto industry and by their own need to achieve economics of scale, automakers have embarked on expansion programmes that envisage annual output of 600,000 vehicles by the mid-1990s, compared with just 63,000 in 1991.
 
技巧四:顺势断句
 
例:Kaifu pledged to reform a political system that sometimes looks as if it were geared more to raising money than solving problems.
 
技巧五:另起炉灶
 
例:It’s one of Asia’s most traditional cities, rich with a Chinese culture that is gracious and lively, and boasts an amazing archive of Chinese art and artifacts.
 
技巧六:完善词义
 
例:Languishing in port, the fleet is suffering breakdowns of equipment, readiness and morale.
 
技巧七:词义引申
 
例:The EEC’s Common Agricultural policy is a dinosaur which is adding £13.50 a week to the food bill of the average British family.
 
技巧八:四字迭词(句)
 
例:Once young offenders embark on a life of crime, prison does little to divert them .
 
步骤四:翻译真题学习
 
2005年翻译真题
 
1.篇章理解
 
2.词汇预热
intellectual a. 智慧的,知识的
discipline n. 科目,学科
undergraduate n. 本科生
view v. 看作  n. 观念
institution n. 院校
preserve n. 保存
equipment n. 装备
degree n. 学位
journalism n. 新闻学
journalist n. 新闻记者
journalistic a. 新闻的
judgment n. 评判
justice n. 正义
democracy n. 民主
parallel a. 类似的
forge v. 铸造,形成
notion n. 观念
sharpen v. 加深
absorb v. 吸收
reflect v. 反思
component n. 组成部分
profoundly ad. 深刻地
ordinary a. 一般的
rest on 依赖
convention n. 习俗
broadly ad. 广泛地
constitution n. 宪法
primary a. 主要的
vary v. 不同
undue a. 过度的
interpretation n. 解释
reaction n. 回应
enhance v. 促进
well-grounded a. 充分的
 
3.快速阅读
The study of law has been recognized for centuries as a basic intellectual discipline in European universities. However, only in recent years has it become a feature of undergraduate programs in Canadian universities. 46. Traditionally, legal learning has been viewed in such institutions as the special preserve of lawyers, rather than a necessary part of the intellectual equipment of an educated person. Happily, the older and more continental view of legal education is establishing itself in a number of Canadian universities and some have even begun to offer undergraduate degrees in law.
If the study of law is beginning to establish itself as part and parcel of general education, its aims and methods should appeal directly to journalism educators. Law is a discipline which encourages responsible judgment. On the one hand, it provides opportunities to analyze such ideas as justice, democracy and freedom. 47. On the other, it links these concepts to everyday realities in a manner which is parallel to the links journalists forge on a daily basis as they cover and comment on the news. For example, notions of evidence and fact, of basic rights and public interest are at work in the process of journalistic judgment and production just as in courts of law. Sharpening judgment by absorbing and reflecting on law is a desirable component of a journalist’s intellectual preparation for his or her career.
48.But the idea that the journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary citizen rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the news media. Politics or, more broadly, the functioning of the state, is a major subject for journalists. The better informed they are about the way the state works, the better their reporting will be. 49. In fact, it is difficult to see how journalists who do not have a clear grasp of the basic features of the Canadian Constitution can do a competent job on political stories.
Furthermore, the legal system and the events which occur within it are primary subjects for journalists. While the quality of legal journalism varies greatly, there is an undue reliance amongst many journalists on interpretations supplied to them by lawyers. 50. While comment and reaction from lawyers may enhance stories, it is preferable for journalists to rely on their own notions of significance and make their own judgments. These can only come from a well-grounded understanding of the legal system.
 
4.句子分析
 
46. Traditionally, legal learning has been viewed in such institutions as the special preserve of lawyers, rather than a necessary part of the intellectual equipment of an educated person.
 
47. On the other, it links these concepts to everyday realities in a manner which is parallel to the links journalists forge on a daily basis as they cover and comment on the news.
 
48.But the idea that the journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary citizen rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the news media.
 
49. In fact, it is difficult to see how journalists who do not have a clear grasp of the basic features of the Canadian Constitution can do a competent job on political stories.
 
50. While comment and reaction from lawyers may enhance stories, it is preferable for journalists to rely on their own notions of significance and make their own judgments.
 
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